Tanzania is an important regional producer with significant R&R need and yield uplift potential due to old trees and low adoption of GAP

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R&R Need

~70% of total land is in need of R&R

SHF land in R&R need

‘000 hectares

50,000 ha No need
110,000 ha R&R need

Need is primarily driven by old trees (50-70 years in some places) and bad current practices, and to a lesser extent disease exposure.

Current SHF yield & potential uplift

Tons per hectare

Current yield
Target yield

Uplift potential


Significant uplift potential given low current SHF yields

Potential increase in supply


Total national supply could increase ~15-50% if R&R and GAP is implemented on all SHF land in need of R&R2

(1) The current yield is calculated on the basis of SHF production divided by SHF land area, the potential yield uplift comes from the GCP study on Tanzania: GCP, Tanzania: GCP: Economic Viability of Coffee farming, 2017;
(2) Rounded to the nearest 5%, estimate assumes that R&R and GAP increase yields with 80%, and the range reflects a 25-100% R&R success rate. Sources: FAOstat, Coffee production and land under coffee, 2014; ICO production statistics; GCP, African coffee sector: Addressing national investment agendas on a continental scale: Tanzania case study, 2016; USDA, Annual Coffee report, 2016; Dalberg interviews

Other Viability Considerations

  • Farmer share of the export price is low at 55-60% compared to estates and other countries where famers are more closely linked to value chains.
  • Taxes are relatively high at 10-20% which could decrease further investment in sector.
  • Uplift potential is biggest for Arabica farmers, though Robusta farmers also have opportunities to improve.
  • Cost of production at farm level is low and has been fairly stable over past years.

Farmer Segmentation

Most SHFs are at the bottom of the pyramid

  1. Large & medium farmers
  2. Commercial farmers in tight value chains
  3. Commercial farmers in loose value chains
  4. Disconnected farmers

National production is dominated by SHFs

The majority of SHFs are either in loose value chains or weakly connected value chains, with unstable links to market. SHF orgs. are generally mismanaged and lack capacity

# SHFs



(2% of global SHFs1)

# SHF land

‘000 hectares


(~90% of national land) – farm size typically <3 hectares (and even <1 hectare))

# SHF production

‘000 hectares


(~90% of national production)

Assessment of SHF orgs.

Nascent coop sector that has historically underperformed – ~50% of SHFs are linked to coops.

Links to market

SHFs have loose and weak links to market.

(1) Assuming a global SHF population of 20 million – other estimates cite 2.4 million farmers in Tanzania, though this might include families relying on income from coffee. We have included the number in the range of 2-12%);
(2) The sector was previously controlled by a national (monopolistic) coffee cooperative. Sources: GCP, Tanzania: GCP: Economic Viability of Coffee farming, 2017. FAOstat, Coffee production and land under coffee, 2014; GCP, African coffee sector: Addressing national investment agendas on a continental scale: Tanzania case study, 2016; USDA, Annual Coffee report, 2016; Dalberg interviews

Enabling Environment for R&R

  • Coffee share of GDP: <1%.
  • Government plan (CIDS) to increase national production to100,000 tonnes by 2020.
  • There are encouraging new investments from estates andother sector companies to support SHFs.
  • Insufficient number of functioning nurseries and there is alack of production of seeds at commercial volumes.
  • Farmers generally have low access to inputs.
  • The Coffee Development Fund (TCDF). Its main objective is to ease access to inputs to SHFs by funding R&D,extension service program, and improved planting material.
  • Given that coops are still developing,2there is little experience within local financial institutions with lending to coops, though this might increase in the future.
  • Lack of local extension service staff is a problem given the large geographical distribution of coffee production.
  • Efforts are in place to publish a standardized ‘coffee curriculum’ on GAP for all extension service workers, though implementation funding is lacking.

Examples of R&R programs

Past R&R programs have focused on increasing adoption of GAP and building SHF organization capacity

Gates Foundation – The Coffee Partnership of Tanzania
since 2012

The program provides training on farmer group formation and GAP, but does not include an integrated R&R package with planting material and finance.

Technoserve – Coffee initiative

Focus on training farmers to increase GAP, including rehabilitation techniques. The program has reached more than 250,000 SHFs across Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, and Tanzania.

HRNS – Tanzania Program

The program focuses on increasing coffee production for 25,000 farmers in Northern Tanzania via better practices, and building commercial farmer organizations.

Learn more and get involved

There is a lot of work to be done to ensure the long-term supply of coffee from countries where the crop has long shaped the social and economic fabric. Learning to extend the life of their trees and improve yields helps farmers stabilize annual production and in turn, income, while the rest of the world benefits from a steady supply of quality coffee. Continue on to learn more about the immediate attention and action that is required to make this a reality.