India is a significant global and regional producer, but has less potential for increasing national supply since SHFs drive only 60% of national production

Download Data Sheet

PDF File 235Kb

R&R Need

~5% of total land is in need of R&R

SHF land in R&R need

‘000 hectares

206,000 ha No need
175,000 ha R&R need

~50% of trees have passed peak productivity and ~40% of Arabica trees are damaged by White Stem Borer. ~15-20% of low land areas could be at risk of climate change. Bad practices are less of an issue

Current SHF yield & potential uplift

Tons per hectare

Current yield
Target yield

Uplift potential


Some potential for SHFs, though limited national impact.

Potential increase in supply


Total national supply could increase ~5-15% if R&R and GAP is implemented on all SHF land in need of R&R2

(1) The current yield is calculated on the basis of SHF production divided by SHF land area, the potential yield uplift is based on an internal estimate based on other mixed countries and current yields– this study cites an average SHF yield of 0.625 tons/hectare;
(2) Rounded to the nearest 5%, estimate assumes that R&R and GAP increase yields with 40%, and the range reflects a 25-100% R&R success rate. Sources: FAOstat, Coffee production and land under coffee, 2014; ICO production statistics; USDA, Coffee Annual: India, 2017; Indian Coffee Board, Annual Report, 2016; Dalberg interviews

Other Viability Considerations

  • There are no government subsidies for coffee.
  • Interviews indicated that outlook for Robusta might be better than for Arabica, since Arabica has been badly hit by White Stem Borer disease.
  • India has started to position itself for speciality coffee markets.

Farmer Segmentation

Most SHFs are at the bottom of the pyramid

  1. Large & medium farmers
  2. Commercial farmers in tight value chains
  3. Commercial farmers in loose value chains
  4. Disconnected farmers

The majority of national production comes from SHFs, but less so than other countries

SHFs are predominately in loose value chains or disconnected value chains, with weak and erratic links to market. There are few (well functioning) aggregation points for farmers.

# SHFs



(~1-2.5% of global SHFs)1

# SHF land

‘000 hectares


(~75% of national land) – average farm size ~1-2 ha)

# SHF production

‘000 hectares


(~60% of national production)

Assessment of SHF orgs.

No aggregation points and SHF orgs. except for non-traditional growing belts.

Links to market

SHFs typically sell their coffee via middlemen.

(1) Assuming a global SHF population of 20 million – we had two varying estimates on number of SHFs. Sources: FAOstat, Coffee production and land under coffee, 2014; ICO production statistics; USDA, Coffee Annual: India, 2017; Indian Coffee Board, Annual Report, 2016; Dalberg interviews

Enabling Environment for R&R

  • Coffee share of GDP: N/A [Coffee share of exports: 0.2%(2015)].
  • The Coffee Board is implementing the “XII Plan Scheme:Integrated coffee Development Project” (2012-2017) with supportive measures including rainfall insurance for SHFs and subsidies for farm mechanization, though the success of the plan is unclear.
  • There are several private nurseries in India which are owned by farmers themselves, or professional groups, and which meet current demand.
  • SHFs are highly credit constrained.
  • Few SHFs are organized into credit savings groups and thus cannot access microfinance funds.
  • Low adoption of GAP and limited current availability TA.
  • The Agricultural Sector Strategic Plan aims to train extension service workers across the country, but there is limited funding so far.

Examples of R&R programs

Despite its size and significance, few programs have been observed in India

Indian Coffee Board – Renovation of Traditional Areas
since 2015

Component of the XII Plan Scheme. The purpose of the program is to renovate more than 3000 hectares of coffee land in traditional coffee growing areas

Learn more and get involved

There is a lot of work to be done to ensure the long-term supply of coffee from countries where the crop has long shaped the social and economic fabric. Learning to extend the life of their trees and improve yields helps farmers stabilize annual production and in turn, income, while the rest of the world benefits from a steady supply of quality coffee. Continue on to learn more about the immediate attention and action that is required to make this a reality.